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R Download 2: A Guide to Getting Started with R for Statistical Computing and Graphics


How to Download and Install R Version 4.3.1 for Windows




R is a free software environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is widely used by researchers, data analysts, and programmers for data manipulation, visualization, and modeling. R has a large and active community of users and developers who contribute to its development and maintenance.




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In June 2023, R version 4.3.1 (Beagle Scouts) was released. This version includes some bug fixes and minor improvements, as well as some new features such as:


  • A new function str_starts() to check if a string starts with a given pattern



  • A new argument na.rm for median() to remove missing values before computing the median



  • A new option stringsAsFactors for read.csv() to control whether character variables are converted to factors



  • A new function isFALSE() to test whether an object is identical to FALSE



  • A new function isTRUE() to test whether an object is identical to TRUE



In this article, we will show you how to download and install R version 4.3.1 for Windows in a few easy steps.


Choosing a CRAN Mirror




CRAN stands for Comprehensive R Archive Network. It is a network of servers around the world that store and distribute R packages and source code. To download R, you need to choose a CRAN mirror that is close to your location. This will ensure faster and more reliable downloads.


To choose a CRAN mirror, go to and click on the link that says "Download R for Windows". You will see a list of mirrors sorted by country. Choose one that suits you best.


Downloading the R Installer




Once you have chosen a CRAN mirror, you will be redirected to a page that says "Download R-4.3.1 for Windows". This is the page where you can download the R installer for your system.


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The installer is a file named R-4.3.1-win.exe, which is about 79 megabytes in size. To download it, click on the link that says "Download R-4.3.1 for Windows (79 megabytes, 64 bit)". The download should start automatically.


If you want to check that the file you have downloaded matches the file distributed by CRAN, you can compare the md5sum of the file to the fingerprint on the download page.


Installing R on Windows




Checking the System Requirements




The R installer requires UCRT, which is part of Windows since Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016. On older systems, UCRT has to be installed manually from . You can check if UCRT is installed on your system by looking for the file ucrtbase.dll in the folder C:\Windows\System32. If the file is not there, you need to install UCRT before installing R.


Running the Installer




To run the installer, double-click on the file R-4.3.1-win.exe that you have downloaded. You will see a window that says "Welcome to R for Windows 4.3.1". Click on "Next" to continue.


You will be asked to choose a language for the installation. The default is English, but you can change it to any of the available languages. Click on "Next" to continue.


You will be asked to read and accept the license agreement. The license is GNU General Public License version 2, which means that R is free software and you can use, modify, and distribute it as you wish. Click on "Yes" to accept the license and continue.


You will be asked to choose a destination folder for R. The default is C:\Program Files\R\R-4.3.1, but you can change it to any folder you prefer. Click on "Next" to continue.


You will be asked to choose the components to install. The default is to install the core files, 64-bit files, i386 files, translations, and Tcl/Tk support. You can uncheck any of these components if you don't need them, but we recommend that you keep them all for a complete installation. Click on "Next" to continue.


You will be asked to choose a startup option for R. The default is "No (accept defaults)", which means that R will use its default settings when it starts. You can also choose "Yes (customized setup)", which means that you can customize some settings such as the language, the editor, and the internet connection. We recommend that you choose the default option unless you have specific preferences. Click on "Next" to continue.


You will be asked to choose a start menu folder for R. The default is "R", but you can change it to any name you prefer. Click on "Next" to continue.


You will be asked to choose whether to create shortcuts for R on your desktop and in your quick launch bar. The default is to create both shortcuts, but you can uncheck any of them if you don't want them. Click on "Next" to continue.


The installation will begin and you will see a progress bar showing the status of the installation. It may take a few minutes depending on your system and internet speed. When the installation is complete, you will see a window that says "Completing the R for Windows Setup Wizard". Click on "Finish" to exit the installer.


Verifying the Installation




To verify that R is installed correctly, you can launch it from the start menu or from the desktop shortcut. You will see a window that says "R Console" with a prompt that says ">". This is where you can type commands and run scripts in R.


You can also launch the R GUI from the start menu or from the desktop shortcut. You will see a window that says "RGui (64-bit)" with a menu bar and a toolbar. This is where you can access some graphical features of R such as plots, help pages, and package management.


To test if R is working properly, you can try some simple commands in the console or in the GUI. For example, you can type 2 + 2 and press enter, and you should see [1] 4 as the output. You can also type plot(1:10) and press enter, and you should see a plot of 10 points in a new window.


If everything works as expected, congratulations! You have successfully installed R version 4.3.1 for Windows.


Updating Packages and Installing New Ones




R comes with a set of packages that provide various functions and data sets for different purposes. However, these packages may not be up-to-date or sufficient for your needs. Therefore, you may want to update existing packages and install new ones from CRAN or other sources.


To update existing packages, you can use the function update.packages() in the console or in the GUI. This function will check if there are newer versions of your installed packages on CRAN, and ask you if you want to update them. You can also choose to update all packages without asking by setting the argument ask = FALSE. For example, you can type update.packages(ask = FALSE) and press enter, and all your packages will be updated automatically.


To install new packages, you can use the function install.packages() in the console or in the GUI. This function will download and install the packages you


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